在此之前我只用过 mongo 自带的命令 mongoexport 进行过导出操作,把数据库的某个 collection 导出为 json 文件,那么这次是要先导出再导入,实现了一个完整的数据迁移闭环,所以在此记录一下,以备不时之需。

一、下载 mongo 工具包

mongo工具包包括管理数据的一些工具 exe 文件,具体如下:

  • mongoexport.exe:导出数据命令工具
  • mongoimport.exe:导入数据命令工具
  • bsondump.exe: 用于将导出的BSON文件格式转换为JSON格式
  • mongodump.exe: 用于从mongodb数据库中导出BSON格式的文件,类似于mysql的dump工具mysqldump
  • mongofiles.exe: 用于和mongoDB的GridFS文件系统交互的命令,并可操作其中的文件,它提供了我们本地系统与GridFS文件系统之间的存储对象接口
  • mongorestore.exe: 用于恢复导出的BSON文件到 mongodb 数据库中
  • mongostat.exe: 当前 mongod 状态监控工具,像linux中监控linux的vmstat
  • mongotop.exe: 提供了一个跟踪mongod数据库花费在读写数据的时间,为每个collection都会记录,默认记录时间是按秒记录

这个工具跟 mongo 的版本有关系,部分版本自带该工具包,比如下图的 4.x 版本,我用的 5.0 版本没有自带工具包,所以我需要先去官网下载工具包文件,然后把 bin 目录下的工具复制到 5.0 版本的 bin 目录下,才能进行数据的导出、导入操作。
工具包的下载地址为:mongo工具包下载地址,解压后把bin文件夹里的文件全部拷贝到 MongoDB 安装目录bin文件夹下。

mongodb使用mongo管理工具包导出导入数据 图1

mongodb使用mongo管理工具包导出导入数据 图2


进入到 mongo 的安装目录 bin 下,使用 mongoexport 工具进行数据的 导出 操作


mongoexport.exe -h localhost:28007 -d database  -c result -o D:/project/result.json 


mongoexport.exe -h localhost:28007 -d database -u admin  -p 123456  -c result -o D:/project/result.json 


进入到 mongo 的安装目录 bin 下,使用 mongoimport 工具进行数据的 导入 操作

mongoimport.exe -h localhost:28007 -u admin -p 123456 -d database -c result --file D:/project/result.json 


D:\MongoDB\Server\5.0\bin>mongoimport.exe -h localhost:28007 -u admin -p 123456 -d database -c result --file D:/project/result.json
2023-04-11T13:34:39.799+0800    connected to: mongodb://localhost:28007/
2023-04-11T13:34:42.799+0800    [#######.................] database.result 20.2MB/66.4MB (30.4%)
2023-04-11T13:34:45.799+0800    [##############..........] database.result 40.5MB/66.4MB (61.1%)
2023-04-11T13:34:48.799+0800    [#####################...] database.result 60.4MB/66.4MB (91.0%)
2023-04-11T13:34:49.660+0800    [########################] database.result 66.4MB/66.4MB (100.0%)
2023-04-11T13:34:49.660+0800    386810 document(s) imported successfully. 0 document(s) failed to import. 

mongodb使用mongo管理工具包导出导入数据 图3

-h :指的是 host 主机地址
-u :指的是用户账号
-p :指的是账户密码
-d :指的是数据库 database 简称
-c :指的是表 collection 简称
-o :指的是导出路径 output 简称
--file :指的是需要导入的文件


使用过程中可以使用 --help 进行参数意思的查看

D:\MongoDB\Server\5.0\bin>mongoimport --help
  mongoimport <options> <connection-string> <file>
Import CSV, TSV or JSON data into MongoDB. If no file is provided, mongoimport reads from stdin.
Connection strings must begin with mongodb:// or mongodb+srv://.
See for more information.
general options:
      /help                                       print usage
      /version                                    print the tool version and exit
      /config:                                    path to a configuration file
verbosity options:
  /v, /verbose:<level>                            more detailed log output (include multiple times for more verbosity,
                                                  e.g. -vvvvv, or specify a numeric value, e.g. --verbose=N)
      /quiet                                      hide all log output
connection options:
  /h, /host:<hostname>                            mongodb host to connect to (setname/host1,host2 for replica sets)
      /port:<port>                                server port (can also use --host hostname:port)
ssl options:
      /ssl                                        connect to a mongod or mongos that has ssl enabled
      /sslCAFile:<filename>                       the .pem file containing the root certificate chain from the
                                                  certificate authority
      /sslPEMKeyFile:<filename>                   the .pem file containing the certificate and key
      /sslPEMKeyPassword:<password>               the password to decrypt the sslPEMKeyFile, if necessary
      /sslCRLFile:<filename>                      the .pem file containing the certificate revocation list
      /sslFIPSMode                                use FIPS mode of the installed openssl library
      /tlsInsecure                                bypass the validation for server's certificate chain and host name
authentication options:
  /u, /username:<username>                        username for authentication
  /p, /password:<password>                        password for authentication
      /authenticationDatabase:<database-name>     database that holds the user's credentials
      /authenticationMechanism:<mechanism>        authentication mechanism to use
      /awsSessionToken:<aws-session-token>        session token to authenticate via AWS IAM
kerberos options:
      /gssapiServiceName:<service-name>           service name to use when authenticating using GSSAPI/Kerberos
                                                  (default: mongodb)
      /gssapiHostName:<host-name>                 hostname to use when authenticating using GSSAPI/Kerberos (default:
                                                  <remote server's address>)
namespace options:
  /d, /db:<database-name>                         database to use
  /c, /collection:<collection-name>               collection to use
uri options:
      /uri:mongodb-uri                            mongodb uri connection string
input options:
  /f, /fields:<field>[,<field>]*                  comma separated list of fields, e.g. -f name,age
      /fieldFile:<filename>                       file with field names - 1 per line
      /file:<filename>                            file to import from; if not specified, stdin is used
      /headerline                                 use first line in input source as the field list (CSV and TSV only)
      /jsonArray                                  treat input source as a JSON array
      /parseGrace:<grace>                         controls behavior when type coercion fails - one of: autoCast,
                                                  skipField, skipRow, stop (default: stop)
      /type:<type>                                input format to import: json, csv, or tsv
      /columnsHaveTypes                           indicates that the field list (from --fields, --fieldsFile, or
                                                  --headerline) specifies types; They must be in the form of
                                                  '<colName>.<type>(<arg>)'. The type can be one of: auto, binary,
                                                  boolean, date, date_go, date_ms, date_oracle, decimal, double, int32,
                                                  int64, string. For each of the date types, the argument is a datetime
                                                  layout string. For the binary type, the argument can be one of:
                                                  base32, base64, hex. All other types take an empty argument. Only
                                                  valid for CSV and TSV imports. e.g. zipcode.string(),
      /legacy                                     use the legacy extended JSON format
      /useArrayIndexFields                        indicates that field names may include array indexes that should be
                                                  used to construct arrays during import (e.g. foo.0,foo.1). Indexes
                                                  must start from 0 and increase sequentially (foo.1,foo.0 would fail).
ingest options:
      /drop                                       drop collection before inserting documents
      /ignoreBlanks                               ignore fields with empty values in CSV and TSV
      /maintainInsertionOrder                     insert the documents in the order of their appearance in the input
                                                  source. By default the insertions will be performed in an arbitrary
                                                  order. Setting this flag also enables the behavior of --stopOnError
                                                  and restricts NumInsertionWorkers to 1.
  /j, /numInsertionWorkers:<number>               number of insert operations to run concurrently
      /stopOnError                                halt after encountering any error during importing. By default,
                                                  mongoimport will attempt to continue through document validation and
                                                  DuplicateKey errors, but with this option enabled, the tool will stop
                                                  instead. A small number of documents may be inserted after
                                                  encountering an error even with this option enabled; use
                                                  --maintainInsertionOrder to halt immediately after an error
      /mode:[insert|upsert|merge|delete]          insert: insert only, skips matching documents. upsert: insert new
                                                  documents or replace existing documents. merge: insert new documents
                                                  or modify existing documents. delete: deletes matching documents
                                                  only. If upsert fields match more than one document, only one
                                                  document is deleted. (default: insert)
      /upsertFields:<field>[,<field>]*            comma-separated fields for the query part when --mode is set to
                                                  upsert or merge
      /writeConcern:<write-concern-specifier>     write concern options e.g. --writeConcern majority, --writeConcern
                                                  '{w: 3, wtimeout: 500, fsync: true, j: true}'
      /bypassDocumentValidation                   bypass document validation